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Essential Concepts – NETWORK PROTOCOL Explained | Hacker Nucleus

A network protocol (or just referred to as protocol) is a set of rules and conventions that are necessary for the communication between two network devices. For example, two computers on a network can communicate only if they agree to follow the protocols.

The following are some of the most widely referred network protocols :

Internet Protocol (IP Address)
An Internet Protocol address (IP address) is a unique number assigned to each computer or device (such as printer) so that each of them can be uniquely identified on the network.

Types of IP Address:
Private IP Address: A private IP address is the one that is assigned to a computer on the Local Area Network (LAN). A typical example of private IP address would be something like: 192.168.0.2
Public IP Address: A public IP address is the one that is assigned to a computer connected to the Internet. An example public IP address would be something like: 59.93.115.125

In most cases a computer gets connected to the ISP network using a private IP. Once a computer is on the ISP network it will be assigned a public IP address using which the communication with the Internet is made possible.

What does “protocol” mean in terms of networks?

A network protocol is simply a standardized way that two or more systems can communicate with each other, thus relieving system administrators from having to create specific configurations for each other system they are communicating with.  Adherence to standards guarantees that each system will be able to make sense of the bits that it’s receiving on its network interfaces.  Well, that’s mostly true, since it does happen that software developers don’t always fully and correctly implement a protocol standard in their software.  For example, different operating systems behave differently on an open socket when unusual packets are received (e.g. with odd combinations of flags).

The primary way that open standard protocols are defined is via the Internet RFC process, which is managed by the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF).  For example, the foundations of TCP were established in the mid 1970’s, and then documented in RFC 793 in 1981 by DARPA.  In RFC terms, that’s a pretty old one – which makes sense since TCP is one of the foundational protocols of the Internet.

What is the most important computer networking protocol?

The most famous of those protocols being BGP, Border Gateway Protocol. BGP is the routing protocol used  on internet backbone for routes exchanges. It successfully managed to scale to the size of the complete internet routing table (a couple of hundred thousand routes and still growing).

What is even more outstanding is that BGP is made to work over different administrative boundaries that have different interests in sharing internet routes.

BGP is also an extensible protocol and as such, Multi Protocol BGP is the main control protocol used inside services provider in order to synchronize control information accross and between participating nodes, typically to exchange routes and reachabilities for VRFs.

Over the last few years MP-BGP got some interesting extensions such as eVPN that uses the BGP scalability to efficiently distribute Ethernet layer 2 information across the network. eVPN can mainly be used in order to improve the network inside virtualization Data Centers for example in order to have a complete and update view of the reach ability and localisation of each Virtual Machine in the network. And this is what we do at Nuage Networks.

BGP is today what keeps Internet under control, and for sure one of the most important protocols used today in networking

Lists of network protocols:
  • Protocol stack: List of network protocol stacks
  • fiber optic protocol
  • Bluetooth protocol
  • Fibre Channel network protocols
  • Internet Protocol Suite or TCP/IP model or TCP/IP stack
  • OSI protocols family of information exchange standards developed jointly by the ISO and the ITU-T
  • Routing protocols
  • List of IP protocol numbers, protocol numbers used in the Protocol field of the IPv4 header and the Next Header field of IPv6 header
  • Yahoo! Messenger, underlying protocol used by the Yahoo messenger
  • RTPS protocol, an interoperability protocol
  • SSH Secure Shell
  • SMB Server Message Block, one version of which was also known as CIFS (Common Internet File System)
  • FTP File Transfer Protocol
  • SMTP Simple Mail Transfer Protocol
  • TCP Transmission Control Protocol
  • Telnet Teletype Network
  • HTTP Hyper Text Transfer Protocol
  • HTTPs Secure Hyper Text Transfer Protocol
  • POP Post Office Protocol
  • HTCPCP Hyper Text Coffee Pot Control Protocol
  • MTP Media Transfer Protocol
  • SFTP Secure File Transfer Protocol
  • SSL Secure Socket Layer
  • TLS Transport Layer Security
  • E6 Ethernet globalization protocols
  • NTP Network time protocol
  • PPP Point to Point Protocol
  • NNTP Network News Transfer Protocol
  • QOTD Quote Of The Day
  • IMAP Internet Message Access Protocol
  • Bitcoin Protocol Protocol for Bitcoin transactions and transfers on the web
  • Ethereum Protocol for Ethereum transactions and smart contracts

 

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